Sunday, November 11, 2007

Detailed Outline: Government Relations


Every day the DC seat of the federal gov. is a PR free-for-all, with 435 congressmen, 100senators, etc
The White House created a permanent Office of Global Com.
The Bush cabinet: press conferences to keep the country apprised of developments in their spheres
the position of undersecreatry of Public iplomacy created after the September attacks
I) Public Reations in Gov:

PR in gov has increased
American businesses lobby gov. Political interest group contribute more to pol coffers than before
no gov worker today can work in PR, but only in public affairs
II) Government Practitioners:

=> Two Prominent Departments:

The STate Department
Has an extensive public affairs staff, responsible for press briefings, maintaining secretary of state homepage content, operating foreign press centers in Washington, L.A, and maintaining Public Diplomacy
United States Information AGency (USIA); federal gov. PR arms==> build institutional foundations of democracy around the world, support war on drugs, env challenges, free and open com.
Its com. Initiatives:

-film and TV





-Libraries and books


2. THe Defense Department (DOD)

public affairs department headed by an assistant secretary of defense

3. Other Government Agencies

ex: department of Health and Human services have PR practiciones
Dep. Of Agr, State and Treasury
CIA: 3 spokespersons
III) The President

Today, he wields unprecedented PC clout? he travels with his own media entourage, controls the 'bully pulpit' and with it a large part of the nation's agenda
Mr Reagan and his com advisers follower 7 principles to manage the news:
Plan ahead
Stay on the offensive
Control the flow of info
limit reporter's access to the president
talk about the issues you want to talk about
speak in one voice
repeat the same Msg many times
IV) The President's Press Secretary:

second most difficult position in any administration: chief PR spokesperson in administration
V) Lobbying the Government:

The bus. community, foundations and philanthropic org. have a common prob: dealing with gov
occoputaion of lobbyist has grown due to:

Rapid growth in gov
Republican control of both White House and Congress
Wide acceptance among corporations that they need to hire professional lobbyists to secure their share of the federal budget

The representatives have diff role:
Com with gov personel and agencies
encourage participation at all levels of gov
influence legislation affecting economy
++What do Lobbyists do?

Interpretation of gov actions
Interpretation of company actions
Advocacy of a position
Publicity springboard
Support of COmpany sales
++ Do it yourself Lobbying:

Know the subject and status of legislation
Know the position of the legislator and the staff
Represent a key constituency
Be available and eager to please
Have influential backup at the ready
Keep your word
know how the system functions
===> Emergence of e-lobbying

role of the web in pol campaigns
V) Political Action Committes:

(PACs): representing labor unions, bus. groups, corporations, Non profit organization, etc

VI) Dealing with loval Gov:

Reagon called for a shift of political debate and public policy decisions to state and local levels

chapter 16: Public Relations Writing

PR professionals: professional communicators

I) Writing for the Eye and the Ear:

PR pple are horrible writers

The chapter explores fundamentals of writing: 1) discussing PR writing in general and news releases in particular, 2) reviewing writing for reading, and 3) discussing writing for listening

writing for a reader diff than writing for a listener

a listener has only one chance to hear the msg once

II) Fundamentals of writing:

a four-part formula for writers, from the novice to the novemist

The idea must preced the expression: think before writing. The trick in coming up with clever ideas lies more in borrowing old ones than in creating new ones

Don't be afraid of the draft. an outline should precede the draft

Simplify, clarify: avoid jargon, complex words
Finally, writing must be aimed at a particular audience: avoid imprecision, ambiguity
III) Flesh Readability Formula:

Flesch gave 7 suggestions for making writing more readable

Use contractions such as it's or does'nt
Leave out the word that whenver possible
Use pronouns such as I, we, they and you
when referring back to a noun, repeat the noun or use a pronoun. Don't create eloquent substitutions
Use brief, clear sentences
Cover only one item per paragraph
Use anguage the reader undertsands
Avoid big words
avoid extra words
avoid clichés
avoid latin
Be specific
Be active
Be simple
Be short
Be organized
Be convincing
be understandable
IV) The Beauty of the Inverted Pyramid

The climax of a newspaper story comes at the begining
The lead of a story is the first one or two paragraphs=> inverted pyramid
Lead answers qst: 5W
V) The News Release

Releases are poorly written (difficult to read)
Releases are rarely localized (it is used when it is localized)
Releases are not newsworthy. what determines its worthiness? Impact, oddity, conflict, knwon principal, proximity, also human interest stories
The product announcement:
The Management change: newspapers interested in that
The Management Speech
VI) News Release Style

TYpical Style rules:

VII) News Release Essentials

No Puffery
Nourishing quotes
Limit Jargon
Company Description
Spelling, Grammar, Punctuation
Clarity, conciseness, committment
VIII) Internet News Releases

ONe reporter per 'to' line
Limit subject line headers
Boldface 'For Immediate Release'
Hammer home to headline
Limit Length
Observe 5W format
No attachment
Link to URL
Remember Readability
IX) The Media Kit:

a calling card to introduce org to the media

The biography
Fact Sheets, Q&As, Photos and So on
Etc, Etc, etc.
X) The Pitch Letter:

A sales letter, pure and simple

XI) Other Print VEhicles:

The case History
The Byliner
The Op_Ed
The Roundup Article
XII) Writing for the ear:

evry spokespercson possesses 5 main characteristics:

it is designed to be heard, not read
it uses concrete language
it demands a positive response
it must have clear-cut ibjectives
it must be tailored to a specific audience
XIII) The importance of editing:

an editor must be judicious, get rid of passive verbs, must be gusty enough to use bold strokes

Chapter 14: Consumer Relations

I. Consumer Relations Objectives
Building sales is the primary consumers relations objective. A satisfied customer may return, an unhappy customer may not.
• Keeping old customers.
• Attracting new customers
• Marketing new items or services
• Expecting complaint handling
• Reducing costs
II. Consumer-Generated Media
• Consumer-generated media: encompasses the millions of consumers-generated comments,opinions and personal experiences posted in publicly available online sources on a wide range of issues, topics, product and brands.
• CGM is also reffered to as “online consumer word mouth” that originated from a variety of sources:
1. blogs
2. message board andforums
3. public disscussions
4. discussions and forums on large e-mail portals
5. Online opinion/review sites and services
6. online feedback/complaint sites
III. Office of the Ombudsperson
• Research indicates that only a handful of dissatisfied customers will ever complain.
• But there are many with the same complains that who never say anything.
• The term ombudsman originally described a government official appointed to investigate complaints about abuses commited by public officials.
• In most companies the office of the ombudsperson office investigates complaints made against the company an dits managers.
• The ombudperson office monitors the difficulties customers are having with products.
IV. The consumer Movement
• Kennedy proposed that consumers have their own bill of rights, containing four basic principles:
i. The right to safety
ii. The right to be informed
iii. The right to choose
iv. The right to be heard.
V. Federal consumer Agenda
• Today a massive gov bureaucracy attempts to protect the consumer against abuse: more then 900 different programs administrated by more than 400 federal entities.
• Key aggencies include the :
1. Justice Departement
2. Fedearl Trade Commission
3. Securities and exchange Comission
4. Food and Drug Administration
5. consumer Product Safety Commission
6. Office of Consumer Affairs
VI. Consumer Activists on the internet
• The consumerist movement has attracted a host of activists in recent years.
• It most significant activity is to keep companies honnest has occured in the interner.
• The best known testing group is Cosumers Union that was founded in 1936 to test products across a wide spectrum of industries.
VII. Business Gets the Message:
• Few campanies can afford to shirk thier responsabilities to consumer.
• Consumer relations divisions have sprung up, either as separate entities or as part of public relations departement.
• In many companies, consumer relations began as a way to handle complaints, an area to which all unanswerable complaints were saints.

Chapter 11: Employee Relations

I. Strong Employee Relations Equals Solid Organizations:
• The wave of downsizing and layfoffs that dominated business and industry worldwide after the high tech bubble burst in the early years of the 21st century has taken its toll on employee loyality.
• The widenning gulf between the pay of senior officers and common workers is another reason organization must be sensitive to employee communications.
• The move toward globalization, including the merger of geographically dispersed organizations, is another reason for increased focus on internal communications.
• Research indicated that companies that communicate effectivly with their workers financilly outperform those that do not.
II. Dealing with the Employee Public:
• There is no signle “employee public”
• Employee public is made of numerous subgroups: senior managers, first-line supervisors, staff and line employees, union labours etc....
• A smart organization will try to differentiate messages and communications to reach these diffenrnt segments.
• Management should ask these tree questions about the way it conveys knowledge to the staff:
1. is management able to communicate effectivly with employees?
2. is communication trusted, and does it relay appropriate information to employees?
3. has management communicated its commitment to its employees and to fostering a rewarding work environment?
• The lack of understanding leads to dicounts, frustration, miscommunication, problems, and eventually to the feeling that the grass is greener elsewhere.
III. Communicating effectively in a Sea of Doubt:
• An organization that is concerned about getting though its employees in an area of downsizing,displacement, and dubioud communications must reinforce five specific principles:
1. Respect:
2. Honest feedback
3. Recognition
4. A voice
5. encouragement

• Milton Moskowitz: gave the six criteria for a company to succed:
1. Willingness to express dissent
2. Visibility and proximity of upper management
3. priority of internal to external communication
4. attention to clarity
5. friendly tone
6. sense of humour

IV. Credibilty: the Key
• Management must be truthful.
• Employees want managers to level with them and they want facts and not wishful thinking
• Research indicates that trust in organizations would increase if management
1. communicated earlier and more frequently.
2. demonstrated trust in employees by sharing bad news as well as good.
3. involved employees in the process by asking for their ideas and opinions.
V. S-H-O-C the troops:
• How does management build trust when employee morale is so brittle?
• Part of the answer lies in an approach to management communicatrion built around the acronym S-H-O-C.
• Management should consider a four step communication approach:
1. all communications must be strategic: where is the organization going? What is my role in helping us get there?
2. all communications must be honest.
3. all communications must be open.
4. all communications must be consistent.
VI. Employee Communication tactics:
• Once objectives are set, a variety of techniques can be adopted to reach the staff. The initial tool again is research:
1. Internal Communications audits
2. Online communications : blogs and wikis
3. The intranet :
a) consider the culture
b) set clear objectives and then let it evolve
c) treat it as a journalistic entreprise
d) Market, market, market
e) Link to outside lives
f) Senior management must commit
4. Print Publications
5. Employee annual Report
6. Bulletin Board
7. Suggestion Box and town Hall Meetings.
8. internal Video
9. Face to face communictions

Chapter19: Crisis Management

I. Issues Management
The term issues management was coined in 1976 by public relations counsellor W.Howard Chase, who defined it this way:
Issues management is the capacity to understand, mobilize, coordinate, and direct all strategic and policy planning functions, and all public affairs/public relations skills, toward achievement of one objective: meaningful participation in creation of public policy that affects personal and institutional destiny.

Issues management is a five-step process that:
1. Identifies issues with which the organization must be concerned,
2. Analyzes and delimits each issue with respect to its impact on constituent publics,
3. Displays the various strategic options available to the organization,
4. Implements an action program to communicate the organization’s views and to influence perception on the issue,
5. Evaluates its program in terms of reaching organizational goals.

In specific terms, issues management encompasses the following elements:
 Anticipate emerging issues
 Identify issue selectively
 Deal with opportunities and vulnerabilities
 Plan from the outside in
 Bottom-line orientation
 Action timetable
 Dealing from the top

II. Emergence of Risk communication:
Risk communication began as a process of taking scientific data related to health and environmental hazards and presenting them to a lay audience in a manner that is both understandable and meaningful.
Seven steps are helpful in planning a risk communication program:
1. Recognize risk communication
2. Encourage management to join the “communication loop”
3. Develop credible outside experts
4. Approach the news media
5. Research perceptions
6. Understand your target audience

III. Managing in a Crisis
As any organization unfortunate enough to experience a crisis recognizes, when the crisis strikes, seven instant warning signs invariably appear:
1. Surprise
2. Insufficient information
3. Escalating events
4. Loss of control
5. Increases outside scrutiny
6. Siege mentality
7. Panic

IV. Planning in a Crisis
The key to crisis management is being prepared.
Heightened preparedness is always in order, with four planning issues paramount:
 First, for each potentially impacted audience, define the risk.
 Second, fro each risk defined, describe the actions that mitigate the risk.
 Third, identify that cause of the risk.
 Fourth, demonstrate responsible management action
Simple but appropriate watchwords for any crisis plan are the following:
 Be prepared
 Be available
 Be credible
 Act appropriately
V. Communicating in a Crisis
The key communications principle in dealing with a crisis is not to calm up
when disasters strikes. Lawyers traditionally have advised clients to either
(1)say nothing, (2)say as little as possible and release it as quietly as possible,
(3) say as little as possible, citing privacy laws, company, or sensitivity, (4)
deny guilt and act indignant that such categories could possibly have been
made, or (5) shift or, if necessary, share the blame with others.
VI. Engaging the Media
Handling the media is the most critical element in crisis. Dealing with the media in crisis demands certain “battle-field rules”; among them:
 Set up media headquarters
 Establish media rules
 Media live for the “box score”
 Don’t speculate
 Feed the beast
 Speed triumphs
 Cable Rules

Chapter18: Public Relations and the Internet

I. Defining the Internet
The internet, technically, is a cooperatively run, globally distributed collection of computer networks that exchange information via common set of rules.
The Internet began as the ARPANET during the Cold War in 1969, developed by the department of Defense and consultants who were interested in creating communication network that could survive a nuclear attack.
The World Wide Web, the most exciting and revolutionary part of the Internet, was developed in 1989 by physicist Tim Berners-Lee to enlarge the Internet for multiple uses
By 2005, the Internet was used by 15 percent of the world’s people, more than 972 million.
The new Internet explosion has taken new forms: blogs, podcasts, wiki sites, RSS feeds, social networks, and others. This time, unlike the first time around, the Internet as a communications and commercial vehicle is here to stay.

II. The Internet as Communications Medium
The Internet has transformed the way that people communicate and make contact with each other, Virtually all organizations, from the largest corporation to the smallest non-profit today has a Web site.
Most of the time today, it is the Web site that serves as an organization’ “first face” to the public.
Journalists, meanwhile still the primary customers for most in public relations have also embraced the Internet as their primary source for research and reporting.

III. Public Relations Internet Challenge
Use of the Internet by public relations practitioners inevitably will grow as the century proceeds, for three reasons:
o The demand to be educated rather than sold
o The need for real-time performance
o The need for customization

Public relations has become prominent in several other areas:
o E-mail
o Web sites
o Blogs
o Online media relations
o Online monitoring
o Product promotion
o Investor relations
o Webcastes

IV. E-Mail: The Dominator
E-mail has become far and away the most pervasive organizational communications vehicle. In most organizations, e-mail is the internal medium of choice for newsletters, bulletins, and internal announcements.
E-mail has also unseated the traditional employee print newsletter. Online newsletters are both more immediate and more interactive than print counterparts.
E-mail newsletters for external use-to customers, investors, or the media-are equally popular and valuable. These differ from their print brethren in several important areas:
1. No more than one page
2. Link content
3. Regular dissemination
V. Developing a Winning Web Site
In many ways, the organization’s Web site is its most important interface with the public.
The aim of any Web site is to provide information that visitors are looking for. The more you achieve that objective, the more “sticky” your site becomes.
How should you create a winning Web site? By first asking and answering several strategic questions:
1. What is our goal?
2. What content will we include?
3. How often will we edit?
4. How will we enhance design?
5. How interactive will it be?
6. How will we track use?
7. Who will be responsible?
Blogs: The Latest Phenomenon
o Blogs, Weblogs that communicate personal views on any topic imaginable, are proliferating at the rate of 70,000 a day
o There are two categories of blogs. One is the traditional Weblog in which a web surfer shares his online discoveries. The second is the Web diary in which a person shares his or her thoughts of the day.
o In terms of public relations use of blogs, organizations can use them to deliver information-product uses, sales data, consumer tips, and so on- in a more personal way.
Blogs also can be useful as an internal communications vehicle. Among possibilities for internal blogs are the following:
o Projects
o Departments
o Brainstorming
o Customers
Dealing with the Media Online
The basics of online media relations include the following:
 Web site newsroom
 News release
 Executive speeches
 Annual/quarterly reports
 Annual meetings
 FAQs
VI. Monitor the Internet….or Else!
The internet is free, wide open, international, and anonymous-the perfect place to start a movement and ruin an organization’s reputation. Public relations people monitor the internet consideration of the following:
 Discussion groups and chat rooms
 Rogue Web sites
 Urban legends
VII. Product Promotion on the Internet
The Internet provides a virtual laboratory to mesh public relations, advertising, and marketing techniques to promote products.
On the positive side, buyers and potential buyers can access your information directly, without interface. On the negative side, you are competing with hundreds of thousands of other information providers for visitor’s attention.
One popular product promotion device is the adlink. The adlink is a small display advertisement that promotes another site or page.
Online discussion groups provide another potential source of product promotion.
Web-based integrated marketing can create a new relationship with customers.
VIII. Investor Relations on the Internet
The Internet also plays a significant role in investor relations, the public relations activity that deals with a company’s stockholders and the communities-brokers and analysts-serving them.
Public companies increasingly use the Internet as a more controlled communications mechanism to reach potential investors.
The government that watches over securities markets is less convinced that the Internet is such a blessing fro investors.
IX. Of Intranets/ Extranets, Wikis; Prodcasts, and RSS Feeds
Public relations practitioners should at least be conversant in the following Internet vehicles:
 Intranets
 Extranets
 Wikis
 Podcasting

Chapter 9 : Print Media Relations

Number One Medium:
Despite the rise of the Internet and electronic media, print still stands as the number one medium among public relations professionals?
Many departments at newspapers and magazines use news release and other publicity vehicles compared to the limited opportunities on networks TV
The Internet and YouTube generations have become dominant members in the society

Public confidence in the media dissipated as time wore on

Media Malaise

Power of Publicity
Mass media have lost relative influence to other proliferating alternative communications vehicles,

the fact remains that securing positive publicity through the media still lies at the heart of public relations practice

Publicity is more credible than advertising

A primary responsibility of a public relations professional vis-à-vis the media is

to help promote the organization when times are good and defend the organization in times of attack

This requires ready working knowledge of what drives the press
Objectivity in the Media
Total objectivity is impossible

By virtue of their role, the media view officials, particularly business and governments spokespersons, with a degree of skepticisms

Journalists should not be expected to accept on faith the party line
The reporter wants the story whether bad or good

The organizations, on the other hand, want things to be presented in the best light

Because of this difference, some executives consider journalists to be the enemy

The Internet Factor
The Internet has complicated this relationship
Dealing with the Media
It falls on public relations professionals to orchestrate the relationship between their organizations and the media

They can be confronted in a honest and interactive way to convey the organization's point of view

An organization must establish a philosophy for dealing wit the media
You should keep in mind the following dozen principles:

1. A reporter is a reporter
2. You are the organization
3. There is no standard issue reporter
4. Treat journalist professionally
5. Do not sweat the skepticism
6. Do not buy a journalist
7. Become a trusted source
8. Talk when not selling
9. Do not expect news agreement
10. Do not cop a tude (do not have attitude with reporters)
11. Never lie
12. Read the paper
Attracting Publicity
Publicity through news releases and other methods is eminently more powerful than advertising

Publicity is most gained by dealing directly with the media, either by initiating the communication or by reacting to inquires

Publicity differs from advertising
Advertising costs money

Since you pay your ad, advertising allows you to control the following:1. Content: What is said and how it is portrayed and illustrated

2. Size: How large a space is devoted to the organization

3. Location: Where in the paper the ad will appear

4. Reach: The audience exposed to the ad, how many papers the ad is in

5. Frequency : How many times the ad is run
Publicity is by no means a sure thing:

1. Publicity is not free

It costs only the time and effort expended by public relations personals and management in conceiving , creating and attempting to place the publicity effort in the media
2. publicity which appears in the news carries the implicit – third party – endorsement of the news sources that reports it

Publicity is not perceived as the sponsoring organization's self-serving view, but as the view of an objective, neural and impartial news sources
Value of Publicity
For any organization, publicity makes sense in the following areas:

1. Announcing a new product or service
2. Reenergizing an old product
3. Explaining a complicated product
4. Little or no budget (frequency)
5. Enhancing the organization's reputation
6. Crisis response
Pitching Publicity
The activity of trying to place positive publicity in a periodical - converting publicity in to news is called pitching

The following hints may help achieve placement:

1. know deadlines
2. Generally write, do not call
3. Direct the release to a specific person and editor
4. Determine how the reporter wants to be contacted
5. Do not badger
6. Use exclusives but be careful
7. When you call do your own calling
8. Do not send clip of other stories about your clients
9. Develop a relationship
10. Never lie
Pitching Online
1. Start with a techno-savvy media database

2. Avoid sending spammed e-mail, first send a brief e-mail identify your

3. The more personal the pitch, the better

4. Links

5. E-mails newsletter in publicity efforts
6. Do not ignore Internet-based news websites

7. Reuters should not be ignored

8. Web Libraries are but another publicity tool

9. Do not forget discussion forums

10. Consider the cyber media tour
Dealing with the Wires
Wire services are compulsory vehicles for distributing news
In preparing copy for paid wires, public relations professionals must consider the following

1. Always include headlines
2. The lead is critical
3. Identify the stock symbol. This is the key to database entry (Nasdaq for Microsoft)
4. Include contact names and numbers at the end
5. specify timing
6. specify target
7. check for accuracy
Measuring Publicity
After an organization has distributed its materials, it needs an effective way to measure the results of its publicity.
A variety of outside print and online services can help:

1. Media directories
2. Press monitoring bureaus
3. broadcast transcription services
4. Media distribution services
5. Content analysis services
Handling Interviews
The following 10 do’s and don’ts are important in newspapers, magazines or other print interviews

1. Media directories
2. Press monitoring bureaus
3. broadcast transcription services
4. Media distribution services
5. Content analysis services

Chapter 17 : Integrated marketing communications

1. Public Relations vs. Marketing vs. Advertising
Marketing: literally defined, is the selling of a service or product through pricing, distribution, and promotion. Marketing ranges from concepts such as free samples in the hands of consumers to buzz campaigns
Advertising: literally defined, is a subset of marketing that involves paying to place your message in more traditional media formats, from newspapers and magazines to radio and television to the internet and outdoors.
Public Relations: literally defined, is the marketing of an organization and the use of unbiased, objective, third party endorsement to relay information about that organization’s products and practices.
2. Product Publicity:
Product publicity can be the most effective element in the marketing mix. For example:
- Introducing a revolutionary new product.
- Eliminating distribution problems with retail outlets
- Small budgets and strong competition
- Explaining a complicated product
- Generating new consumer excitement for an old product
- Tying the product to a unique representative.
- Creating an identity
3. Third-Party Endorsement:
- Third-party endorsement refers to the tacit support given a product by a newspaper, magazine, or broadcaster who mentions the product as news.
- Publicity appears to be news and is more trustworthy than advertising that is paid for by a clearly nonobjective sponsor.
- Public relations counselors argue that discriminating against using product names does a disservice to readers or viewers, many of whom are influenced by what they read or see and many desires the particular products discussed.
4. Building a Brand:
Branding: is creating a differentiable identity or position for a company or product
Using integrated marketing communications to establish a unique brand requires adherence to the following principles:
- Be early
- Be memorable
- Be aggressive
- Use heritage
- Create a personality
5. Integrating Marketing with Public Relations:
A. Article Reprints :
Marketing can be done through article reprints aimed at that part of a target audience that might not have seen the original article. It helps also to reinforce the reactions of those read the original article.
Use of reprints should be approached systematically with the following ground rules in mind
- Plan ahead.
- Select target publics and address the recipients by name and title
- Pinpoint the reprint’s significance
- Integrate the reprint with similar articles and information on the same or related subjects.
B. Trade Show Participation:
This feature enables an organization to display its products before important target audience. The decision to participate should be considered with the following factors in mind :
- Analyze the show carefully
- Select a common theme.
- Make sure the products displayed are the right ones
- Consider the trade books
- Emphasize what’s new
- Consider local promotion efforts
- Evaluate the worth
C. Use of Spokespersons
- The purpose of the spokespersons is to air their sponsor’s viewpoint
- They must be articulate, fast on their feed and thoroughly knowledgeable about the subject.
D. Cause-Related Marketing :
It brings together the fund-raising needs of nonprofit groups with the business objectives of sponsoring companies.

E. In-kind Promotions
When a service, product or other consideration in exchange for publicity exposure is offered, it is called an in0kind promotion.
6. Public Relations Advertising :
This technique became known variously as institutional advertising, image advertising, public service advertising, issues advertising, and ultimately public relations-or nonproduct- advertising,
7. Purposes of Public Relations Advertising :
1. mergers and diversifications
2. personnel changes
3. organizational resources
4. manufacturing and service capabilities
5. growth history
6. financial strength and stability
7. company customers
8. organization name change
9. trademark protection
10. corporate emergencies

8. Twenty First Century Integrated Marketing :
A. Television Brand Integration :
The latest phenomenon in television is to integrate products into the fabric of what is being presented on the screen.
B. Infomercials :
They were introduced as program-length commercials, shamelessly hawking products
C. Word-of-Mouth Marketing :
Also known as Buzz Marketing, word of mouth is another alternative to traditional advertising that enlists influencers or trend setters to spread the word about particular product.
D. Television and Movie Product Placements :
Product placements in films also are proliferating at a rapid rate.
They are also known as the embedded advertisements
E. You Name It :
1. Song placements
2. Sports teams
3. Blogs
4. Whaaa?

Chapter 15 International Relations

1.Operating Around the Globe
The actions of individuals and organizations in one part of the world are felt instantly and irrevocably by people around the globe.
Multinational corporations, in particular, must be sensitive to how their actions might affect people of different cultures in different geographies.

Hopscotching the World for Public Relations :

Canadian public relations are the rival of American practice in terms of its level of acceptance, respect, sophistication and maturity.
Canadian public relations professionals must be conversant not only in English speaking parts of their country but also in the French speaking markets, such as Quebec.

Europe is the domicile of some of the world’s mightiest companies, from BMW and Volkswagen in Germany.
Latin America
iLatin America is expending at a faster rate than virtually any other region in the world.
In terms of public relations development in Latin America, the scene is more chaotic than in the United States, Canada or Europe.

Public relations in Asia have experienced sharp growth in recent years.
The practice of public relations is contrary to the nation’s cultural heritage.

China holds great potential for public relations expansion.

Elsewhere in Asia, public relations also have begun to take root.
Every Asian country is different and public relations practice differs considerably from that in the United Stated.

Eastern Europe:
In the new democracies of Eastern Europe, there are 370 million consumers and so the prospects for public relations expansion are enticing.

The practice of public relations has been steadily developing.
The practice of PR still has a ways to go in Russia.

Australia and New Zealand:
The public relations Institute of Australia is an extremely active organization and the practice is widespread.
Australian public relations practice is more low key and less flashy than American practice but no less competent and sophisticated.

The practice of public relation in Africa is growing.
As the most developed country in sub-Saharan African, South Africa led the continent in sophisticated public relations.
In several African countries, public relations practitioners are not allowed to practice their craft unless they are registered members of designated national public relations associations, which adhere to strict standards and ethics.

Middle East:
Despite the misunderstandings, hostilities, and frayed feelings that exist between the Middle East and the West, the practice of public relations, in parts of the Middle East at least, has grown nicely.
The practice itself is far different than that practiced in the United States.

3. Communicating to the Global Village:
Communication media around the world have truly converted the globe into one large “village”, united by satellite and internet technology. What happens in one corner of the globe is instantly transmitted to another.
On of the most active global communications factors are the tens of thousands of nongovernmental organization (NGO).such organization can spread their views across the glob.
As globalization and international trade impact societies, such NGOs have become increasingly influential in world affairs.

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

External communication and networking for NGOs

Communication is necessary for every interaction, we communicate with each other all day through different means. Communication is necessary for working together since it offers us the opportunity to increase our audience, gain more knowledge and experience. Therefore Rotaract clubs need communication, and we need to improve it all the time. Communication and networking go together. Many of us might not pay attention to the word “networking” and find it useless; however it is something that we all do. Networking is the fact of establishing contacts, keeping contacts and using those contacts. This is a very important tool to improve the communication between NGO (Non Governmental Organization). However, some NGOs may have poor networking and this is the case of Rotaract morocco.
This paper aim to find solution in order to improve the external communication between NGOs and how to use those contacts in order to work more effectively and I will take the Rotaract Morocco as a case study. We have two kinds of communication: the communication inside NGOs or internal communication, and communication with other NGOs and funds or external communication. In this paper, I will be focusing more in the external communication between the different Rotaract clubs in Morocco. However, no matter what kind of communication we will address, all forms of communication networking is highly recommended and very important.
Before starting talking about ways of improving the communication, a brief overview about Rotaract is highly recommended.
Rotaract History
According to Rotary website, Rotaract is a Rotary-sponsored service club for young men and women ages 18 to 30 foster leadership and citizenship and want to make a difference. It is either community or university based, and they’re sponsored by a local Rotary club. This makes them true "partners in service" and key members of the family of Rotary. . It was founded in 1968 by Rotary International, an association of clubs made up of service-minded business and professional leaders. This clubs enable Rotaractors to grow personally and professionally, address community needs, and promote international understanding through friendship and service
As one of Rotary’s most significant and fastest-growing service programs, with more than 7,000 clubs in about 163 countries and geographical areas, Rotaract has become a worldwide phenomenon. The word Rotaract comes from a combination of the words “Rotary” and “Action”. The first club was chartered in 1968 at the University of North Carolina, USA. Today there are over 7,500 clubs in over 154 countries with an estimated membership of 170,000 young men and women worldwide. Rotaractors should be of good standing and reputation in their communities. Under the guidance of a Rotarian advisor, Rotaract clubs conduct formal meetings, usually every week, which feature speakers, tours of local businesses, cultural activities, discussions, and visits to other clubs. Each year, Rotaract clubs conduct at least one service project in each of three areas of service: vocational, community and international. In addition to their service agenda, Rotaract clubs also focus on professional development, organizing career-related programs to assist members and peers outside the club in making informed career choices. During the week of 13 March, Rotaractors join in a worldwide celebration of World Rotaract Week. This coincides with the date that the first Rotaract club was officially certified by Rotary International. In celebration of this week, Rotaractors plan and carry out service projects and local events to raise awareness about the club.
Many Rotaract service projects focus on issues of importance to young people such as AIDS, the environment, homelessness, urban peace, and drug abuse prevention. Often Rotaractors work in tandem with area Rotarians Projects and activities may include:
• Blood drives
• Benefit concerts
• Literacy campaigns
• AIDS education
• Environmental clean-up efforts
• Professional and vocational forums
Rotaractors may also
Assist in organizing Interact clubs or mentor Interactors
Participate in Rotary Youth Leadership Awards
Become Rotary Foundation Ambassadorial Scholars or Group Study Exchange team members
Seek membership in their local Rotary club
Rotaract started expanding all over the world. Almost height years ago, the first Rotaract club in Morocco was created in Casablanca. After that, it started expanding all over Morocco and this is of course thanks to the Rotary club who helped in the creation of the first Rotaract Club in Morocco. The aim behind creating such organization in Morocco is to build a mutual understanding between the different Rotaract clubs in the world. This club introduced a new culture within the society, a culture where all of us should help each other in order to decrease the level of poverty and make from Morocco such a good place. Rotaract started expanding all over the world in order to break down the barriers and promote peace, and this is with the aim of changing the world to a better place and being the change that they want to see.
Rotaract of Al Akhawayn University has been operational since September 23, 2001. Today, the club gathers about twenty active members and volunteers who with their participation and projects follow the goals of Rotaract. Rotaract club AUI is part of a Rotary District 9010 which includes clubs from Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania and Morocco Members of the district frequently gather on multidistrict conferences thus informing and maintaining friendly connections and ties. Rotaract club offers young and ambitious people to recognize the needs of their community and to, through their own contribution in fulfilling those needs, develop and improve their knowledge and skills, as well as to build their high moral principles.
Message statement:
Every club has its own slogan, for the AUI Rotaract Club is
“We Lead the Way”
Our vision statement is: to be an outstanding service organization
Mission Statement: to improve our community
Identification of the problem
In Morocco, there are more than twelve Rotaract clubs operating and following the same path, but they suffer from one major problem: the external communication between the different clubs is very weak. This constitutes a huge obstacle because they don’t communicate and hence they are not aware of each other events and major activities. As the president of Rotaract club, I can claim that Rotaract clubs Morocco lack the external communication and there is no contact with their members. After more than four years within Rotaract clubs, we just met one time. We are not aware of what is going on outside our clubs and this constitutes a challenge for us. Actually, the Rotaract club Morocco needs to cooperate together and come up with project at the national scale, but since there is no contact between the members, this is almost impossible. It is true that the Rotaractors are encouraged to keep their contact information current and updates in order to facilitate the communication, but even though, the problem persists.
We are trying to overcome these weaknesses and make improvement in this area. By improving the external communication, the Rotaract clubs in Morocco can establish strong connections and broaden their network and thus increase exposure to opportunities. Rotaractors can accomplish more if they can reach out to Rotaractors.
Research question:
The big question is: How can we facilitate the external communication and through which means?

Target audience
Communication system enables the exchange of effective and efficient information. The external communication is the exchange of information which occurs between the organization and external parties such as community members, but in our case it is about the external communication between the different members of the Rotaract clubs in Morocco. However, the internal communication is an exchange of information which occurs within the organization itself. In today world, knowing who to communicate to, what, why, when and how is becoming vital.
Goals of the paper: 1. Develop and implement a communication strategy using technology to economically increase and improve both internal and external communication.2. Develop a robust public relations committee for internal and external marketing of Rotaract Clubs in Morocco.
Solutions and communication vehicles :
In general, every organization has its own method of communication. The most used methods of external communication are
- emails
- telephone calls
- fax
- letters
- blogsopt
In order to find solutions to this problem, Rotaract AUI took the initiative and called for a general assembly where all the representatives of the clubs should be present and discuss the problem. People from different clubs came to the meeting and suggested some solutions. We concluded that the Rotaract club Morocco should elect a national coordinator that should be in touch with all clubs keep every one informed about all the events and facilitate the communication.
The national coordinator must help in the management of all clubs over Morocco and come up with a national action plan. This person is very important since he or she might try to get in touch with all clubs and s/he the link between the Rotaract and rotary. Without a national coordinator, the effective of the clubs is negative and their output is very low. The national coordinator is also responsible for promoting the program, disseminating information among all Rotaract and sponsor rotary clubs
Besides that, Rotaract clubs of Morocco should design a media strategy in order to create visibility about their work among its members and public opinion. This is what Rotaract clubs of Morocco can do in order to implement this strategy:
Develop a website or blogspot: the use of blogs and website is becoming now very famous and everyone is tending to create their own space. Thanks to this new tool, Rotaract clubs can highlight their work on a global scale. However, having a website or a blogs requires some work. Someone should update it continuously in order to ensure that the information is fresh as possible. It is not professional to have a website or a blog with information that dates back to more than 5months, and this might create a bad impression on the people checking it out. After words, we decided within Rotaract Morocco that each club must create a blog, and then between all of us we will create the website for Rotaract morocco where we can link all our blogs. Only one club out of twelve is using a blog to share their information and events with us, and Rotaract AUI is the second club to create a blog. Websites can be expensive to maintain, that is why it requires a professional to do it, however a blogspot is easy to maintain and can be a substitute for a website. This is free service on the internet and requires no domain fee, additionally space can be unlimited. Another new phenomenon it is the use of facebook. Many Rotaract club over the word have their facebook, that is why I took the initiative to create a facebook group for the Rotaract club of AUI, and then for Morocco. But even with the use of all theses tools, people still inactive and they don’t use it effectively. People need to adopt this new culture and get used to it, however this will take time. The diffusion of technology in our country is still weak even if every one has access to it.
Design a newsletter: this is a good tool to inform the outside world about who we are and what we are doing, and why we are doing it and where we are doing and how well we are doing it. It should be the primary voice of the organization in order to create awareness. Rotaract Morocco used to have this newsletter where all members contribute on it, but since 4 years ago, they did not distribute anything. Rotaract Morocco should have a quarterly newsletter than can be electronic in order to save the printing costs and can be sent to everyone
Annual report: all clubs of Rotaract must produce an annual report that must be public. Actually all NGOs need to publish it. The annual report can be exchange between the different clubs and also sent to the relevant stakeholders.
Media relations: Rotaract clubs needs to get in touch with press in order to frontline their public relations. Writing to magazines, journals or website is very interesting. The use of posters, pamphlets and brochures is also essential point of marketing.
Special events and social gathering between the members: a gathering can be organized at least every 3 months. Besides the electronic ways of communication, there is no better than the interaction face to face, that’s why conference, seminars or social gathering is an important to build good network. Rotaract try to organize seminars just for its members and every club try to organize a weekend for Rotaract members where all Rotaractors meets in order to share their experiences and knowledge. Besides, we agreed that all representative of clubs should meet every three month in order to discuss the others cancers, and also in order to work in project at the national scale.
Using E-mails: creating a mailing list is primordial to communicate and keep in touch with each other. We should not wait for others to take actions, someone should take initiative till the other get used to it. By building a mailing list and mailing regularly, using e-mail and news group or website, every one will be updated and aware of others events. The Rotaract club thought about this, and we are using yahoo group in order to communicate. However, people are still not that used, and even with the presence of these methods, we find problems since not every one is cooperative and replying to the emails. Another method was the creating of two groups in facebook, one for Rotract AUI and the other for Rotract Morocco. But even though, not every one is active. We are trying to get everyone involved by starting a discussion, but unfortunately only few replied. As we can see, even with the presence of the different tools, the real problem is on the people mind. People must get used to this new ways of communication. We are in the digital age where the traditional ways of communication are not effective anymore and people must adapt to it. It is really hard to change people’s mind and this may led us to another topic. However the best thing that we can do is showing interest.
Use of Faxes: it is an expensive method and time consuming compared to the use of emails, but it can be highly recommended in some cases. Faxes can not be deleted, and the receiver is obliged to read it before it can be destroyed. Rotaract use already this way in order to inform others about a special event or issue or send official forms.
The use of sms’s : this is an effective and rapid method to keep everyone updated and to communicate fast. It is a very effective since all members have access to cell phones and the answer can be quick. However it can be sometimes cost effective because of the huge number of members.
Develop an ad: only one club out of twelve has an ad. As part of the project, I have created a spot for Rotaract AUI. This can be very effective visual information about Rotaract. It must be short and more than 10 minutes since people don’t have time. I will try to cover all the important projects within our club and send it to the different clubs additionally; it must be uploaded in “youtube” so every one can have access to it.
Data base: This data base is a vital way to improve the networking, and have the contact of all members available.
Word of mouth: this is the most traditional and powerful means of media and all the members should be involved in this. Everyone should be well informed to talk about a specific issue anytime anywhere.
The communication between the clubs must be two-way. Those are some of the methods that Rotaract clubs can apply for an effective external communication. Every method of communication has a different meaning but it is very effective. Those are the most important actions that the Rotaract Morocco must develop : Objective for 2007- 2008 :
- Create the Rotaract of Morocco website.
- All clubs must have blogs
- Add Rotaract advertiser in the website
- Create a data base
- Re-evaluate internal audit process
The use of finding of this project:
This project will distributed to the different Rotaract clubs over Morocco in order to use it as a reference. They are many strategies that can be implemented easily and used effectively, so it will be a good idea that every club get a copy of this project and use it as a guide for improving their external communication. It can be used also as reference to improve the communication between the organization and the community since those strategies is applicable for both cases.
Brief overview about the internal communication:
The internal communication between the members is very effective. Each week one hour meeting is held in the student activities office for our club, and it is the same case for the other clubs all over Morocco. An email is sent 24 hours before in order to communicate the timing and the place of the email. After the end of every meeting, a meeting minutes is sent to the members to keep them updated, remind them of their tasks, and inform the ones that were absent about the tasks. This effort is made in order to increase the communication and each one should be aware of its tasks and what they are supposed to do. In addition, e-mail is a primary form of communication. We created a facebook group in order to facilitate the flow of information, but unfortunately is not effective. Besides, as part of this project, I created a blog that allow board members to post comments/ requests/ questions and post document, and it is a new way to increase the availability of documents to all board members.
It is true that the Rotaract clubs in Morocco is facing several problems, but we have our strengths also. Our greatest asset is the dedicated, intelligent and talented members. Our members are enthusiastic, take initiative and work hard to accomplish the goals of the club. Communication has three parts: a sender, a message and a receiverwhen you want to communicate you will find that all three parts change from one situation to the other. Your work will improve when you are able to analyze your communication: think every time about who the sender is, what the message is, and who the receiver is.

Frank. J ( 2007). The NGO Network Alliance Project. Media Strategies for NGO sustainability. Retrieved September 19, 2007 from :

Fraser.P.S. (2001). The Practice of Public Relations. Pearson: New Jersey
Rotaract. Retrieved October 3, 2007 from: ault.aspx

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Chapter 8: Research

Research is the natural starting point for any public relations assignment from promoting a product to designing a program to confronting crisis.
Essentiel Frist Step
Every public relations program or solution should begin with research.
Research should be applied in public relations work both at the initial stage, prior to planning a compaign, and at the final stage to evaluate a program's effectiveness.
What is Research?
Research is the systematic collection and interpretation of information to increase understanding.
Research skills are partyly intuitive, partly on outgrowth of individual temperament and partly a function of acquired knowledge.
The real challenge lies in using research, knowing when to do what, with whome, and for what purpose.
Principles of Public Relations Research
The institute of public relations and research education offered seven guiding principales in setting standards for public relations research.
1. Establishing clear program objectives and desired outcomes tied directly to business goals.
2. Differentiating between measuring public relations ouputs, generally short temr and surface, and measuring public relations outcomes.
3. measuring media content as first step.
4. understanding that no one technique can be expected to evaluate PR effectiveness.
5. Being wary of attempts to compare PR effectiveness with ads. effectiveness.
6. organization should have a clear identified key messages, target audiences, and desired channeles of communication.
Types of PR Research

Research is conducted to do 3 things :
1. describe the process, situation or phenomenon
2. expalin why somthing is happening, what its causes are, and what effect it will have
3. Predict what probably will happen if we do or don't take action.
Applied research solves practical problems and theoretical research aids understanding of a PR process.

Applied Research
it can be either strategic or evaluative.
1. strategic is used in program development.
2. Evaluative research , called somtimes summative research, is conducted to determine whether a PR program has accomplished its goals and objectives.
Theoritical Research
It is more abstract and conceptual than applied research.
it helps build theories in PR work about why poeple communicate, how PO is formed and how a public created.
Knowledge of theoretical research can help practitioners not only understanding the basis of applied research findings but also temper management's expectations of attitude and behavioral change resulting from PR programs.
Secondary Rsearch
It is research on the cheap.
it allwos you examine or read about and learn from someone else's primary research.
it uses data that have been collected for other purposes than your own.

Methods of PR Research
Observation is the foundation of modern social science.
Three primary forms ofPR research dominate the file :
1. Surveys
2. Communications audits.
3. Unobstusive measures.

it is the most frequently used research methods in PR.
it can be applied to broad societal issues or more focuses issues.
surveys come in two types :
1. Descriptive surveys.
2. Expkanatory surveys.
surveys consist of four elements:
1. Sample, 2. Questionnaire, 3. Interview, 4. Analysis of results

Random sampling or nonrandom sampling
Interview :
Focus Group
Telephone interviews
Mail interviews
Drop-off inteviews
Interceot Interviews
Delphi interviews
Internet inteviews

PR project proposal

Statement of problem

Non-Governmental organization (NGOs) should communicate between themselves in order to build trust and good governance .However, what I have noticed is that the NGOs in Morocco lack, if they have any, PR programs and external communication. My case study will be based on the Rotaract club external communication. The communication between the different Rotaract clubs is very weak, and this constitutes a real problem for their credibility and the motivation of their members also.

Basic research design (Literature review)
My research design will be based on the case of the Rotaract Club of Al Akhwayn University and its relation between the other Rotaract clubs based in morocco.
I will be using some internet websites related to the NGOs in morocco.

Research question
The NGOs in morocco lack of external communication since they don’t communicate and cooperate. Why is that? And how this problem should be resolved?

The rationale, and explanation of what the findings of this project will
contribute in the future

This research paper may be useful for the NGOs in morocco since it will be as guide for them in order to improve their PR program and communication problems. The finding of this project will contribute to the improvement of the external communication of the NGOs in morocco in the future. My audience will be all the people involved in any kind of NGO activities and also and it may serve them as a reference.

Situational analysis
This part will include the historical part of my case study which is Rotaract Clubs in Morocco

Message statement
The message statement of all rotaracts clubs over the world is “We lead the way”

Target audience
People working under NGOs

Key audiences messages
The message that I m tending to address to my audience is that the NGO should reinforce their external communication and create methods and new ways to create between themselves.

Communication vehicles
Blogs and Brochures

20 September: creation of the blog (
22 September: Proposal
23 September: research paper first draft
30 September: final draft of the research paper
15 October: Advertising spot of Rotaract club

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Chapter 5:Management

1.Management Process of Public Relations:
like other management process, professional public relations work emanates from clear strategies and bottom line objectove that flow into specific tactics, each with its own budget, timetable, and allocation of resources.The best public relations programs can be measured in terms of achieving results in building the key relationships on which the organization depends.
The boundary role, when public relations managers function as a liaison between the organization and its internal and external publics

They have one foot inside the organization and one outside

They help their colleagues to communicate across organizational lines both within and outside the organization
PR professionals should think strategically in terms of the strategic process element of their own roles

Their mind-set is directed at communicating key messages to realize desired objectives to priority publics

2. Reporting to Top Management
The public relations function, by definition, must report to top management

Marketing and advertising promote the product, public relations promotes the entire organization

Public relations should be the corporate conscience

To perform that function effectively, it needs to report directly to top management
The public relations function, by definition, must report to top management

Marketing and advertising promote the product, public relations promotes the entire organization

Public relations should be the corporate conscience

To perform that function effectively, it needs to report directly to top management
3. Conceptualization the public relations plan
Strategic planning for PR is an essential part of management

Strategic planning is the organization's overall game plan, has a longer planning horizon (typically three to five years) and is performed at the corporate and business levels of the organization

Planning is critical to win the support of top management
With proper planning, PR professionals can indeed defend and account for their actions

PR practitioners must consider


The environment must dictate overall business objectives

These, in turn, dictate specific PR objectives and strategies
All planning requires thinking

Planning for short-term public relations program may require less thought than planning a long –term campaign to win support for a public policy issue

The PR plan must include clear-cut objectives to achieve organizational goals, targeted strategies to reach those objectives, specific tactics to implement the strategies
4. Creating the public relations plan
The PR plan must be spelled out in writing

Its organization should answer management questions and concerns about the campaign being recommended
Here is one way it might be organized and what it should answer:

Executive summary
Communication process
Situation analysis
Message statement
Key audiences messages
Monitoring and evaluation
5. Activating the public relations campaign
The plan specifies a series of what’s to be done and how’s to get them done

What is necessary to reach the objectives

The four-part skeleton of a typical public relations campaign plan resembles the following:

Backgrounding the problem
Preparing the proposal
Implementing the plan
Evaluating the campaign

1. Backgrounding the problem:

Situation analysis
Case statement

that specifies the major aims of the campaign

A PR planner should divide the overriding goal into several subordinate objectives
2. Preparing the proposal:

It sketches broad approaches to solve problems at hand
2. Preparing the proposal:

The elements of PR proposal may vary depending on the subject matter, but generally include the following

Situational analysis
Scope of assignment
Target audience
Research methods
Key messages
Communication vehicles
Project team
Timing and fees
3. Implementing the plan:

It details the operating tactics
It may also contain a time chart specifying when each action will take place
Specific activities are defined
People are assigned to them
And deadline are established

This stage forms the guts of the campaign plan
4. Evaluating the campaign:

To find out whether the plan worked

By asking these method questions:

Did we implement the activities we proposed
Did we receive appropriate public recognition for our efforts
Did attitudes changes
6. Setting public relations objectives

An organization's goals must define what its public relations goals will be

PR objectives and strategies must achieve results

Strategies are the most crucial decisions of public relations campaign
PR professionals are managing by objectives (MBO) and results (MBR) to quantify the value of PR in an organization

Two questions are most frequently asked:

1. How can we measure PR results?
2. How do we know whether the PR program is making process?

The key to using MBO effectively: Seven Steps

1. Defining the nature and mission of the work
2. Determining key results in terms of time, effort and personnel
3. Identifying measurable factors on which objective can be set
4. Setting objectives
5. Preparing tactical plan
6. Establishing rules and regulations to follow
7. Establishing procedures to handle the work
7. Budgeting for public relations
PR activities must be disciplined by budgetary realities
Like any business activity, PR programs must be based on sound management

After identify objectives, tactics should be considered

Administrative Budgeting

Budget dollars are assigned generally against the department's allocation for staff and expenses
In recent time, PR Budgeting have increased

Media placement
Media monitoring
Special events

Sunday, September 9, 2007

Public Opinion outline

What is Public Opinion?
- Public opinion, like public relations, is not easily to be explained.
Different difiniton of P.O :
--->Josed Fraft called P.O : " The unknown got to which moders burn incense"
---> Edward Bernays called it : " a term describing an ill-defined, mercurial, and changeable
of individual judgments"
---> Herman C. Boyle : " Public opinion is not the name of somthing, but the classification of a
number of somthing"
An opinion is the expression of an attitude on a particular topic
Attitudes ---> Opinions ---> Ations
Public opinion is the aggregate of many individual opnions on a particulr issue that affects a group pf people.
public opinion represents a consensus that begins with poeple's attitudes toward the issue in question.
What are attitudes?
- it was one generally assumed that attitudes are predispositions to think in a certain way about a certain topic.
- Research indicates that attitudes is the evaluations poeple make about specific problems or issues.
A. Attitudes are based on a number of characteristics :
1. personal
2. Cultural
3. Educational
4. Familial
5. Religions
6. Social Class
7. Race
- Attitudes and behaviors are situational, in other words, influenced by specific issues in specific situations
How are attitudes influenced?
- Attitudes are positive, negative, or nonexistent.
A. Theory of cognitive dissonance :
Individuals tends to avoide informaiton that is dossonant or opposed to their own points of view and tent to seek out information that is consonant with, or in support of their own attitudes.
B. Social judgement theory"
People may have a range of opinions on a certain subject, anchored by a clear attitude.

Motivating attitude change
- poeople are motivated by different factors, and no two poeple respond in exactly the same wat to the same set of circumstances. Each of us motivated by different drives and needs.

A. Maslow's Hierachy of needs theory :
It helps define the origins of motivations, which in turn helps explain attitude change
B. The five level of Maslow's hierachy
1. Pshychological needs : which is the lowest order and it explain the person's biological demands like food, water, sleep, health, bodily needs, exercise, rest and sex.
2. Safety needs : the second level, which is security, protection, c0mfort, and peance and derly
3. Love needs : the third level, and it is about acceptance, belongings, love and affections and
membership in a group
4. Esteem : the fourth level, and it is about recongnition and prestige, confidence and
leadership opportunities, competence and strength, intelligence and success.
5. Self- actualization : the highest level. it is about becoming what one is capable of becoming
self-actualization involves self-fulfillement and achieving a goal for the purposes of
challenge and accomlishement.

C. Eleboration likelihood model :
it is another approach to motivating attitude to change
it posits that there are essentially two ways that poeple get persuaded :
---> When we are interested and focused enough on a message to take direct central route
to decision making
---> When we are nor particualrly engaged on a message and need to take a more peripheral

Power of persuasion :
- persuading is the goal of the vast majority of public relaitons programs.
- It means getting another person to do somthing through advice, reasoning or just plain arm-twisting.
A. Persuasion theory :
poeple may be of two minds in order to be persuaded to believe in a particular position or
take a specific action.
- systematic mode : referring to a person who has carefully considered an argument.
- Heuristic mode : referring to a person who is skimming the surface and not really focusing
on the intricacies of a particular position to catch the flaws, inconsistencicies or errors.
B. Evidence that will persuade :
1. Facts
2. Emotions
3. Personalizing
4, Appealing to you

Influencing public opinion :
Public opinion is a lot easier to mesure than it is to influence.

1. Opinion is highly sensitive to important events
2. opinion is generally determined more by events than by words, unless those words are themselves interpreted as an event.
3. at critical times, poeple become more sensitve to the adequacy of their leadership.
4. once self-interest is involved, opinions are slow to change.
5. poeple have more opinions and are able to form opinions more easily on goals than on methods to reach those goals.
6. by and large, if poeple in a democracy are provided with educational opportunities and ready access to information, public opinion reveals a hardheaded common sense.

Managing reputation

Reputation is present throughout our lives
It is how we choose business partners, which dentist or mechanic to visit...

Sunday, September 2, 2007

Chapter 1 outline :What is Public Relations, Anyway?

I. Prominence of Public Relations
1.What is Public Relations?
“It is a process that engage in a planned activity in order to influence the attitudes and actions of a specific community”
II. Planned Process to Influence Public Opinion
R-A-C-E: the four step model based on specific functions
III. Public Relations as Management Interpreter
IV. Public Relations as Public Interpreter
1. The public of public relations
2. Internal and external
3. Primary, secondary, and marginal
4.Traditional and future
5.Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted
V. The Functions of Public Relations
2. Media Relations
3. Planning
6. Marketing Communication
7.Community Relations
8.Consumer Relations
9.Employee Relations
10. Government Affaires
11.Investor Relations
12. Special Public Relations
13.Public affairs and issues management
14.Web site development and web interface
VI. The Curse of “Spin”

VII. What Manner of Man or Woman?

1. Characteristics for a successful public relations career:
c.Communication Skills
d.Relationship building
e.Proactively and passion
g.Intangibles, such as personality, likeability, and chemistry