Sunday, September 23, 2007

Chapter 8: Research

Research is the natural starting point for any public relations assignment from promoting a product to designing a program to confronting crisis.
Essentiel Frist Step
Every public relations program or solution should begin with research.
Research should be applied in public relations work both at the initial stage, prior to planning a compaign, and at the final stage to evaluate a program's effectiveness.
What is Research?
Research is the systematic collection and interpretation of information to increase understanding.
Research skills are partyly intuitive, partly on outgrowth of individual temperament and partly a function of acquired knowledge.
The real challenge lies in using research, knowing when to do what, with whome, and for what purpose.
Principles of Public Relations Research
The institute of public relations and research education offered seven guiding principales in setting standards for public relations research.
1. Establishing clear program objectives and desired outcomes tied directly to business goals.
2. Differentiating between measuring public relations ouputs, generally short temr and surface, and measuring public relations outcomes.
3. measuring media content as first step.
4. understanding that no one technique can be expected to evaluate PR effectiveness.
5. Being wary of attempts to compare PR effectiveness with ads. effectiveness.
6. organization should have a clear identified key messages, target audiences, and desired channeles of communication.
Types of PR Research

Research is conducted to do 3 things :
1. describe the process, situation or phenomenon
2. expalin why somthing is happening, what its causes are, and what effect it will have
3. Predict what probably will happen if we do or don't take action.
Applied research solves practical problems and theoretical research aids understanding of a PR process.

Applied Research
it can be either strategic or evaluative.
1. strategic is used in program development.
2. Evaluative research , called somtimes summative research, is conducted to determine whether a PR program has accomplished its goals and objectives.
Theoritical Research
It is more abstract and conceptual than applied research.
it helps build theories in PR work about why poeple communicate, how PO is formed and how a public created.
Knowledge of theoretical research can help practitioners not only understanding the basis of applied research findings but also temper management's expectations of attitude and behavioral change resulting from PR programs.
Secondary Rsearch
It is research on the cheap.
it allwos you examine or read about and learn from someone else's primary research.
it uses data that have been collected for other purposes than your own.

Methods of PR Research
Observation is the foundation of modern social science.
Three primary forms ofPR research dominate the file :
1. Surveys
2. Communications audits.
3. Unobstusive measures.

it is the most frequently used research methods in PR.
it can be applied to broad societal issues or more focuses issues.
surveys come in two types :
1. Descriptive surveys.
2. Expkanatory surveys.
surveys consist of four elements:
1. Sample, 2. Questionnaire, 3. Interview, 4. Analysis of results

Random sampling or nonrandom sampling
Interview :
Focus Group
Telephone interviews
Mail interviews
Drop-off inteviews
Interceot Interviews
Delphi interviews
Internet inteviews

PR project proposal

Statement of problem

Non-Governmental organization (NGOs) should communicate between themselves in order to build trust and good governance .However, what I have noticed is that the NGOs in Morocco lack, if they have any, PR programs and external communication. My case study will be based on the Rotaract club external communication. The communication between the different Rotaract clubs is very weak, and this constitutes a real problem for their credibility and the motivation of their members also.

Basic research design (Literature review)
My research design will be based on the case of the Rotaract Club of Al Akhwayn University and its relation between the other Rotaract clubs based in morocco.
I will be using some internet websites related to the NGOs in morocco.

Research question
The NGOs in morocco lack of external communication since they don’t communicate and cooperate. Why is that? And how this problem should be resolved?

The rationale, and explanation of what the findings of this project will
contribute in the future

This research paper may be useful for the NGOs in morocco since it will be as guide for them in order to improve their PR program and communication problems. The finding of this project will contribute to the improvement of the external communication of the NGOs in morocco in the future. My audience will be all the people involved in any kind of NGO activities and also and it may serve them as a reference.

Situational analysis
This part will include the historical part of my case study which is Rotaract Clubs in Morocco

Message statement
The message statement of all rotaracts clubs over the world is “We lead the way”

Target audience
People working under NGOs

Key audiences messages
The message that I m tending to address to my audience is that the NGO should reinforce their external communication and create methods and new ways to create between themselves.

Communication vehicles
Blogs and Brochures

20 September: creation of the blog (
22 September: Proposal
23 September: research paper first draft
30 September: final draft of the research paper
15 October: Advertising spot of Rotaract club

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Chapter 5:Management

1.Management Process of Public Relations:
like other management process, professional public relations work emanates from clear strategies and bottom line objectove that flow into specific tactics, each with its own budget, timetable, and allocation of resources.The best public relations programs can be measured in terms of achieving results in building the key relationships on which the organization depends.
The boundary role, when public relations managers function as a liaison between the organization and its internal and external publics

They have one foot inside the organization and one outside

They help their colleagues to communicate across organizational lines both within and outside the organization
PR professionals should think strategically in terms of the strategic process element of their own roles

Their mind-set is directed at communicating key messages to realize desired objectives to priority publics

2. Reporting to Top Management
The public relations function, by definition, must report to top management

Marketing and advertising promote the product, public relations promotes the entire organization

Public relations should be the corporate conscience

To perform that function effectively, it needs to report directly to top management
The public relations function, by definition, must report to top management

Marketing and advertising promote the product, public relations promotes the entire organization

Public relations should be the corporate conscience

To perform that function effectively, it needs to report directly to top management
3. Conceptualization the public relations plan
Strategic planning for PR is an essential part of management

Strategic planning is the organization's overall game plan, has a longer planning horizon (typically three to five years) and is performed at the corporate and business levels of the organization

Planning is critical to win the support of top management
With proper planning, PR professionals can indeed defend and account for their actions

PR practitioners must consider


The environment must dictate overall business objectives

These, in turn, dictate specific PR objectives and strategies
All planning requires thinking

Planning for short-term public relations program may require less thought than planning a long –term campaign to win support for a public policy issue

The PR plan must include clear-cut objectives to achieve organizational goals, targeted strategies to reach those objectives, specific tactics to implement the strategies
4. Creating the public relations plan
The PR plan must be spelled out in writing

Its organization should answer management questions and concerns about the campaign being recommended
Here is one way it might be organized and what it should answer:

Executive summary
Communication process
Situation analysis
Message statement
Key audiences messages
Monitoring and evaluation
5. Activating the public relations campaign
The plan specifies a series of what’s to be done and how’s to get them done

What is necessary to reach the objectives

The four-part skeleton of a typical public relations campaign plan resembles the following:

Backgrounding the problem
Preparing the proposal
Implementing the plan
Evaluating the campaign

1. Backgrounding the problem:

Situation analysis
Case statement

that specifies the major aims of the campaign

A PR planner should divide the overriding goal into several subordinate objectives
2. Preparing the proposal:

It sketches broad approaches to solve problems at hand
2. Preparing the proposal:

The elements of PR proposal may vary depending on the subject matter, but generally include the following

Situational analysis
Scope of assignment
Target audience
Research methods
Key messages
Communication vehicles
Project team
Timing and fees
3. Implementing the plan:

It details the operating tactics
It may also contain a time chart specifying when each action will take place
Specific activities are defined
People are assigned to them
And deadline are established

This stage forms the guts of the campaign plan
4. Evaluating the campaign:

To find out whether the plan worked

By asking these method questions:

Did we implement the activities we proposed
Did we receive appropriate public recognition for our efforts
Did attitudes changes
6. Setting public relations objectives

An organization's goals must define what its public relations goals will be

PR objectives and strategies must achieve results

Strategies are the most crucial decisions of public relations campaign
PR professionals are managing by objectives (MBO) and results (MBR) to quantify the value of PR in an organization

Two questions are most frequently asked:

1. How can we measure PR results?
2. How do we know whether the PR program is making process?

The key to using MBO effectively: Seven Steps

1. Defining the nature and mission of the work
2. Determining key results in terms of time, effort and personnel
3. Identifying measurable factors on which objective can be set
4. Setting objectives
5. Preparing tactical plan
6. Establishing rules and regulations to follow
7. Establishing procedures to handle the work
7. Budgeting for public relations
PR activities must be disciplined by budgetary realities
Like any business activity, PR programs must be based on sound management

After identify objectives, tactics should be considered

Administrative Budgeting

Budget dollars are assigned generally against the department's allocation for staff and expenses
In recent time, PR Budgeting have increased

Media placement
Media monitoring
Special events

Sunday, September 9, 2007

Public Opinion outline

What is Public Opinion?
- Public opinion, like public relations, is not easily to be explained.
Different difiniton of P.O :
--->Josed Fraft called P.O : " The unknown got to which moders burn incense"
---> Edward Bernays called it : " a term describing an ill-defined, mercurial, and changeable
of individual judgments"
---> Herman C. Boyle : " Public opinion is not the name of somthing, but the classification of a
number of somthing"
An opinion is the expression of an attitude on a particular topic
Attitudes ---> Opinions ---> Ations
Public opinion is the aggregate of many individual opnions on a particulr issue that affects a group pf people.
public opinion represents a consensus that begins with poeple's attitudes toward the issue in question.
What are attitudes?
- it was one generally assumed that attitudes are predispositions to think in a certain way about a certain topic.
- Research indicates that attitudes is the evaluations poeple make about specific problems or issues.
A. Attitudes are based on a number of characteristics :
1. personal
2. Cultural
3. Educational
4. Familial
5. Religions
6. Social Class
7. Race
- Attitudes and behaviors are situational, in other words, influenced by specific issues in specific situations
How are attitudes influenced?
- Attitudes are positive, negative, or nonexistent.
A. Theory of cognitive dissonance :
Individuals tends to avoide informaiton that is dossonant or opposed to their own points of view and tent to seek out information that is consonant with, or in support of their own attitudes.
B. Social judgement theory"
People may have a range of opinions on a certain subject, anchored by a clear attitude.

Motivating attitude change
- poeople are motivated by different factors, and no two poeple respond in exactly the same wat to the same set of circumstances. Each of us motivated by different drives and needs.

A. Maslow's Hierachy of needs theory :
It helps define the origins of motivations, which in turn helps explain attitude change
B. The five level of Maslow's hierachy
1. Pshychological needs : which is the lowest order and it explain the person's biological demands like food, water, sleep, health, bodily needs, exercise, rest and sex.
2. Safety needs : the second level, which is security, protection, c0mfort, and peance and derly
3. Love needs : the third level, and it is about acceptance, belongings, love and affections and
membership in a group
4. Esteem : the fourth level, and it is about recongnition and prestige, confidence and
leadership opportunities, competence and strength, intelligence and success.
5. Self- actualization : the highest level. it is about becoming what one is capable of becoming
self-actualization involves self-fulfillement and achieving a goal for the purposes of
challenge and accomlishement.

C. Eleboration likelihood model :
it is another approach to motivating attitude to change
it posits that there are essentially two ways that poeple get persuaded :
---> When we are interested and focused enough on a message to take direct central route
to decision making
---> When we are nor particualrly engaged on a message and need to take a more peripheral

Power of persuasion :
- persuading is the goal of the vast majority of public relaitons programs.
- It means getting another person to do somthing through advice, reasoning or just plain arm-twisting.
A. Persuasion theory :
poeple may be of two minds in order to be persuaded to believe in a particular position or
take a specific action.
- systematic mode : referring to a person who has carefully considered an argument.
- Heuristic mode : referring to a person who is skimming the surface and not really focusing
on the intricacies of a particular position to catch the flaws, inconsistencicies or errors.
B. Evidence that will persuade :
1. Facts
2. Emotions
3. Personalizing
4, Appealing to you

Influencing public opinion :
Public opinion is a lot easier to mesure than it is to influence.

1. Opinion is highly sensitive to important events
2. opinion is generally determined more by events than by words, unless those words are themselves interpreted as an event.
3. at critical times, poeple become more sensitve to the adequacy of their leadership.
4. once self-interest is involved, opinions are slow to change.
5. poeple have more opinions and are able to form opinions more easily on goals than on methods to reach those goals.
6. by and large, if poeple in a democracy are provided with educational opportunities and ready access to information, public opinion reveals a hardheaded common sense.

Managing reputation

Reputation is present throughout our lives
It is how we choose business partners, which dentist or mechanic to visit...

Sunday, September 2, 2007

Chapter 1 outline :What is Public Relations, Anyway?

I. Prominence of Public Relations
1.What is Public Relations?
“It is a process that engage in a planned activity in order to influence the attitudes and actions of a specific community”
II. Planned Process to Influence Public Opinion
R-A-C-E: the four step model based on specific functions
III. Public Relations as Management Interpreter
IV. Public Relations as Public Interpreter
1. The public of public relations
2. Internal and external
3. Primary, secondary, and marginal
4.Traditional and future
5.Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted
V. The Functions of Public Relations
2. Media Relations
3. Planning
6. Marketing Communication
7.Community Relations
8.Consumer Relations
9.Employee Relations
10. Government Affaires
11.Investor Relations
12. Special Public Relations
13.Public affairs and issues management
14.Web site development and web interface
VI. The Curse of “Spin”

VII. What Manner of Man or Woman?

1. Characteristics for a successful public relations career:
c.Communication Skills
d.Relationship building
e.Proactively and passion
g.Intangibles, such as personality, likeability, and chemistry